The Recovery Place
A set of step-by-step guidelines that helps those recovering from an addiction, compulsion or other behavioral problems. Originally created by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) for people with an alcohol addiction, the 12-Steps are now used worldwide for other addictions and problems.
In general the 12-Steps cover these principles:
- Admitting that you can’t control your addictive behavior
- Recognizing that a greater power can give you strength
- Examining how we have hurt others in the past, with the help of a sponsor (a person who is already in recovery and has experience with the 12-step program)
- Making amends for these past physical and emotional injuries
- Learning to live a new life of recovery with a new code of behavior
- Helping others who are suffering from the same addictions or compulsions The specific wording and number of steps has been adapted to the individual addiction, compulsion or problem.
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In general, to use something or someone improperly. More specifically, substance abuse is the use of alcohol or drugs to a level that interferes with physical, mental, social and occupational health and responsibilities.
A controlled combination drug that is prescribed for the use of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (a disorder where a person has an uncontrollable desire to fall asleep). It is made of two stimulants, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine aspartate. It is unknown exactly how Adderall works. It carries a “black box warning” meaning that it can have severe side-effects, including addiction, if not closely monitored by a physician.
Adderall is commonly abused as:
- A study enhancing drug—increases the ability to stay focused and pay attention during intensive study sessions. “College crack” is a nickname for Adderall.
- A party drug—creates a sensation of well-being and confidence, increases the libido, and enables users to stay awake for long periods of time
- A weight-loss drug—has a strong appetite suppressing effect
Increasingly abused because is easily obtained and relatively cheap.
A physical and/or psychological dependence on something to a degree that severely interferes with daily life and interactions. Originally addiction meant a physical and psychological dependence on a substance, such as drugs or alcohol. The definition has now been broadened to mean having a dependency on anything that a person is unable to exercise self-control over. Formal treatment is required when abuse of a substance or activity reaches the level of addiction.
Common addictions are:
A person who habitually uses a substance (for example drugs or alcohol) and has lost the ability to exercise self-control in order to stop. An addict seeks to gain access to the substance they are addicted to, no matter what the cost to their physical and mental health, their relationship to family and friends, and their social and employment status.
Commonly called “detox” for short. The controlled and medically-supervised withdrawal from drugs and alcohol. Often the first step in a drug and alcohol treatment program, since detox alone won’t lead to recovery. Detox includes medical management of the physical symptoms that occur when the substance is no longer in the body. The goal of detoxification is to help make the uncomfortable transition during the period of withdrawal from the drugs or alcohol, so that a person is able to focus on long-term recovery activities.
No single approach to detoxification is fully effective. Different drugs require different strategies for minimizing the withdrawal symptoms, and each person will respond differently to detox.
A formal program of rehabilitation with the goal of recovery from a physical and/or psychological dependence on something to a degree that severely interferes with daily life and interactions (an addiction). Treatment may include medical detoxification, inpatient and outpatient therapy, group and individual therapy sessions, and medication.
The ultimate goal of addiction treatment is to develop an understanding for the causes of the addiction, and develop life-skill tools to help prevent a relapse into the addictive behavior and maintain positive mental and physical health. Family members should be included in the treatment process.
The period immediately after discharge from inpatient or outpatient addiction treatment as the addict or alcoholic is fully transitioned back into a home environment. Aftercare may be a formal extension of a treatment program, or a recovering addict or alcoholic’s participation in support groups and other groups and activities that promote continued recovery.
Some examples of aftercare activities are:
- Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
- Alumni programs, meetings and activities
- Monitoring programs that help those in recovery return to work life
- Therapeutic support by addiction therapists to help maintain the relapse prevention plan of the person in recovery
A range of programs and activities, both formal and informal, that help the addict or alcoholic maintain their recovery and relapse-prevention plan in the period of time immediately after rehabilitation.
A chemical compound called ethanol that is the “alcohol” in an alcoholic beverage. When a person drinks alcohol, about 20% is absorbed in the stomach and 80% absorbed in the small intestine of the body. Absorption in the stomach is very fast, so drinking on an empty stomach causes alcohol to be rapidly absorbed into the body. Depending on the kind of alcoholic drink and whether the stomach is empty or full affects how quickly blood alcohol concentration goes up in the body.
Alcohol leaves the body through the liver, lungs and kidneys. In the brain alcohol has a depressant effect and reduces attention and slows reaction time. It isn’t fully understood why some people become addicted to alcohol (become alcoholics) and some don’t, but some research shows that some risk factors include:
- Social environment
- Mental health
- Genetic predisposition
- Ethnic group
Alcohol abuse detox
Commonly called “detox “for short. The controlled and medically-supervised withdrawal from alcohol. Often the first step in an alcohol treatment program, since detox alone won’t lead to recovery.
Detox includes medical management of the physical symptoms that occur when alcohol is no longer in the body. The goal of detoxification is to help make the uncomfortable transition during the period of withdrawal from the alcohol, so that a person is able to focus on long-term recovery activities.
A physical and/or psychological dependence on alcohol to a degree that severely interferes with daily life and interactions. Formal treatment is required when abuse of alcohol reaches the level of addiction. Alcohol addiction is the most common addiction in the United States. It is estimated that there are over 12 million people in the United States who have an alcohol addiction (are alcoholics).
A formal program of rehabilitation with the goal of recovery from a physical and/or psychological dependence on alcohol to a degree that severely interferes with daily life and interactions (an addiction).
Treatment may include:
- Medical detoxification,
- inpatient and outpatient therapy,
- group and individual therapy sessions, and
- medication, and a long-term plan to help avoid using alcohol in the future.
The ultimate goal of alcohol treatment is to develop an understanding for the causes of the addiction to alcohol, and develop life-skill tools to help prevent a relapse into the addictive behavior and maintain positive mental and physical health. Family members are included in the treatment process.
A disease where someone is unable to stopping drinking alcohol.
Common symptoms of alcoholism are:
- Being unable to stop drinking once drinking has begun
- Getting nauseated, sweaty, shaky or anxious if unable to get a drink
- Always feeling a strong need or urge to have an alcoholic drink
- Needed larger and larger amounts of alcohol in order to get the same feeling
Alcoholism is a chronic disease. This means that a person will have the disease for a lifetime. Alcoholism can develop through a certain lifestyle, emotional and psychological patterns, and by genetics.
An important aftercare phase of a complete drug and alcohol rehabilitation program. Alumni programs are groups of individuals who have completed rehab program and work together to support each other in long-term recovery.
Alumni programs are committing to helping each other both emotionally and by sharing social activities that don’t include drug and alcohol. Activities include not only formal get together to discuss common issues, concerns and recovery successes, but also social activities like sports events and picnics. Family members are included in alumni programs.
One of two small, almond shaped areas that are part of the limbic system of the brain. This system is located in the temporal parts of the brain, which are roughly located on each side of the brain.
The limbic system is involved in many of our motions and motivations, such as fear, anger, and the pleasurable sensations felt with eating, sex and other activities. Important research has shown that drug and alcohol addiction and mental illness may be related to how the amygdalae (the plural form of the word amygdala) is functioning.
One drug in the benzodiazepine family (tranquilizers). The generic name of Ativan is lorazepam. Has many uses in medicine, but in drug and alcohol rehabilitation is frequently used to help control anxiety. Is also used to assist with insomnia caused from anxiety. Other uses are for seizures and nausea. Ativan may also be abused and addictive. After long-term use it should never be stopped suddenly, because withdrawal symptoms may occur
A family of drugs that are often called tranquilizers. In drug and alcohol rehabilitation treatment benzodiazepines are often used to help control anxiety, insomnia and other symptoms that someone may experience during drug and alcohol detox and rehabilitation. Ironically, benzodiazepines can also be addictive, and some patients may enter treatment already dependent on tranquilizers. Commonly used benzodiazepines include Ativan, Xanax, and Valium.
It is important that anyone who has been on benzodiazepines for a long time be gradually tapered off the drug, in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms. It isn’t completely understood how benzodiazepines work, but it is thought to affect the neurological transmitters in the brain.
This is the maximum response that a drug can have, even if the amount of drug taken is increased. Some drugs have a low ceiling effect. If a user takes even more of the drug in order to try to achieve a high or other sensation or response, unwanted and dangerous side-effects can occur. Not all drugs have a ceiling effect. This means that a user can keep taking more and more of the drug, and will get the same high if enough is taken.
In drug addiction treatment this is an important concept. Some opiate drugs, such as buprenorphine, are used to help someone through medical withdrawal (detox). These drugs often have very low-ceilings, so that even if dosage is increased beyond the ceiling, the user feels a high.
A physical and psychological dependence on a substance, such as drugs or alcohol, that later the mood or the mind.
Christian addiction treatment
A substance abuse program that combines traditional treatment with Bible-based interventions and therapy with primary therapy sessions facilitated by Christian counselors. The Bible is frequently used to support those in rehab to help them make parallels between 12-step programs and God’s Word as an active part of the recovery process.
Rehab also includes participation in local churches and Bible-study groups, and Christian-recovery groups so that once rehab is completed a strong Christian support is in place when client’s return to their homes.
A powder made from the leaves of the coca plant that can be snorted, smoked or injected to achieve a euphoric sensation or “high.” Is one of the most commonly used and addictive stimulant drugs. Can be snorted, smoked or injected. Affects the central nervous system, causing euphoria. Because it is difficult to achieve the same level of “high”, users often keep increasing the amount of cocaine that they use. Severe side-effects include dangerously high fever, pulse and blood pressure. These side effects can lead to permanent heart and lung problems or death. Street names include nose candy and blow. In the crystallized form it is known as crack. According to a 2008 survey more than 36.8 million Americans 12 years of age and older have tried cocaine at least once.
An opiate (derived from the opium poppy and in the same drug family as morphine) is a commonly prescribed drug used to treat pain and suppress some types of coughs. Like other opiates, it affects the central nervous system of the body and causes the user to feel a sense of euphoria and sedation. It reduces alertness. Codeine is an addictive when used long-term. Drug abusers use this drug by chewing the tablets, or crushing them and snorting or injecting Codeine. Codeine is part of the drug hydrocodone that is frequently misused and abused. Causes withdrawal symptoms when use of Codeine is stopped abruptly.
Codependency is the addiction to a supportive role in a relationship. More simply put, this means that you may be living through and for another person, taking care of their every need, trying to fix their problems, feeling constantly anxious about that other person, and taking on the blame for their failures. A person who acts in this way is called codependent.
In dysfunctional families, like those with an addict or an alcoholic as the center or the household, codependent relationships are very common. One of the most common reasons for this is that drug or alcohol addicts are often attracted to codependent people. The reverse is also true! Because a codependent person has a deep and powerful need to take care of someone else, they are very likely to choose a partner with problems.
This means to stop using drugs abruptly and without the help of medical detoxification, in hopes of controlling a drug dependence or addiction. The symptoms of withdrawal from drugs and alcohol are very severe. Since the drug and alcohol in a person’s body is not slowly lowered over a period of time, “going cold turkey” can cause dangerous symptoms in some people. One of the symptoms of withdrawal from opiates is “goose flesh” of the skin (also called. This is where the term cold turkey comes from.
One of the phases of a complete drug rehabilitation program. Clients who are in a treatment program share housing with other addicts or alcoholics who are also in drug rehab. Community housing provides clients an opportunity to support and share with each other after-hours, and participate in specific treatment-oriented evening activities. Community housing is important because it gives people in rehab a chance to practice the new life-skills that they are learning in a supportive and structured environment.
A controlled substance is a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, and use are regulated by a government. Some drugs that are used in the production of illegal drugs are also considered controlled substances. An example is pseudoephedrine, a common antihistamine, is now controlled more stringently since it is an ingredient use in the production of methamphetamine.
Controlled drugs are classified according to groups called schedules. Schedule I drugs have a high abuse potential and no accepted medical use, such as heroin and LSD. Schedule II drugs have a high abuse potential with severe dependency, such as opiates, amphetamines and some barbiturates. There are a total of 5 schedules with varying degrees of abuse potential. Most controlled substances require a prescription and all require the pharmacists to keep a recording of the transaction.
In drug and alcohol addiction counseling fills several functions. First and most importantly is for licensed counselor to stabilize an addict or alcoholics mental health so that they are able to commit to the treatment and rehabilitation process. This part of counseling may vary in length, depending on whether detox or medical management of other mental health issues is necessary.
In the second stage of counseling, an addict is helped to learn specific tools and skills that will help them avoid relapse. Later ongoing counseling may continue after leaving active drug and alcohol rehabilitation so that further understanding of the reasons behind the substance abuse continues, and further strengthen of personal and life skills continues.
Crack is a crystallized form of cocaine, an extremely addictive stimulant drug that is made from the coca plant. Crack causes an almost immediate “high” when the crystals are heated and the fumes are inhaled. Because such large amounts of the drug can be inhaled, instead of needed to inject the drug, it is often preferred by addicts. It became very popular in the 1980s because it is cheap to produce and buy. The term “crack” comes from the crackling sound that the crystals make when heated. Potentially-deadly side effects are extremely high pulse rate, blood pressure and body temperature. Common street names are freebase, rooster and tornado.
A strong desire or need or urge to do something. In drug and alcohol terms it is the urge to have a drink or use a drug.
Day/night treatment program
A stage of drug and alcohol rehabilitation where a person no longer needs full-time inpatient care, but requires participation in daily treatment program along with a specific evening schedule of recovery-oriented activities. In day/night treatment programs clients generally live in home-like setting in proximity to the day treatment center, and have access 24 hours a day to addiction therapy staff in case of a crisis.
Evening programming may include community housing activities specific to recovery, or participation in 12 step or other programs off-site. A large focus is put on therapeutic interventions with additional support activities that reinforce coping skills and teach relapse prevention techniques.
In drug and alcohol addiction terms a physical and psychological dependence on a substance, such as drugs or alcohol, that later the mood or the mind. In physical dependency a person’s body may go into withdrawal when the drug or alcohol is not available. These symptoms may include nausea, sweating, shakiness or anxiety. Another type of dependency is tolerance. Tolerance to a drug or alcohol is when a person needs larger amounts of drugs or alcohol to achieve the same high.
Depression is a kind of disorder that affects your mood, such as your emotions or feelings. It can affect how you feel about yourself and about your life. Depression can be cause by an event or by chemical changes in the brain. Some people become addicted to drugs or alcohol in order to self-treat their depression. Others become depressed due to their drug and alcohol addiction.
The process of getting drugs or alcohol out an addicted person’s system so that they are able to being rehabilitation. Medical detox is done under the supervision of a physician, and the goal is to safely manage the acute symptoms of withdrawal. The physician may prescribe specific medications to treat withdrawal symptoms (such as anxiety) or may give the patient a medical substitute for the addictive substance in order to slowly taper them off the drug. The substitute drug (for example methadone) may be similar to the addictive drug but not cause the desired euphoria or high that they addict may seek. Going through detox does NOT mean that someone has gone through rehabilitation. It is only an important first step.
The identification of a problem based on specific signs or symptoms. By identifying the problem (or diagnosis), then treatment can begun. In drug and alcohol addiction, each diagnosis requires a specialized and individualized treatment process.
For example, a dual diagnosis means that a person has both an addiction (drug and/or alcohol) and a mental health problem (such as anxiety, bipolar, or depression). Drug addicts and alcoholics can also have other medical diagnoses such as high blood pressure (hypertension) or diabetes that will need to be treated along with the addiction diagnosis.
An abnormal condition that affects the body either physically, mentally or psychologically. A disease generally has specific symptoms follows a specific course. In medical terms some common diseases are the common cold, anxiety, depression and influenza. Although considered at one time to be “a matter of willpower” it is now accepted that alcoholism is a disease that has recognized symptoms, follows a generally predictable course and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Addiction (drug or alcohol) is a chronic disease similar to other chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.
Dopamine is a chemical substance in the body that affects the brain. It is particularly related to feelings of pleasure and reward and many important physical functions, such as heart rate and blood pressure. Many drugs of abuse cause a rapid and intense release of dopamine in the body, and this results in the rush, high or euphoria (sense of well-being) that drug addicts seek.
A drug is a single chemical or combination of chemicals, both natural and man-made (synthetic), that when absorbed into the body system causes a change within the body.
A physical and/or psychological dependence on a drug or drugs to a degree that severely interferes with daily life and interactions. Formal treatment is required when abuse of a substance or activity reaches the level of addiction. Drug addiction is a brain disease because the abuse of drugs leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain. Drug addiction can be to prescription medications or illegal substances such as heroin.
A formal program of rehabilitation with the goal of recovery from a physical and/or psychological dependence on drug or drugs that severely interferes with daily life and interactions (an addiction). Drug treatment may include medical detoxification, inpatient and outpatient therapy, group and individual therapy sessions. The ultimate goal of addiction treatment is to develop an understanding for the causes of the addiction, and develop life-skill tools to help prevent a relapse into the addictive behavior and maintain positive mental and physical health. Family members are included in the treatment process.
When someone with a drug and/or alcohol addiction has a psychological or emotional problem at the same time.
These can include:
- Bipolar disorder
- Post-traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD)
- Social phobias
- Panic disorders
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Dual diagnosis treatment
Dual diagnosis treatment is a specialized type of drug and alcohol recovery program that at the same time includes treatment of a mental or emotional disorder.In order for rehabilitation to be effective, both the addiction and the associate mental health problem must be addressed at the same time.
An unpleasant or uncomfortable feeling or mood described as anxiety, irritability, restlessness, depression, sadness or irritability. Although anyone can have occasional episodes of dysphoria, it is a very common symptom of a number of psychiatric illnesses.
In dysfunctional families (such as those battling drugs or alcohol), enabling means giving “help” that actually makes the situation worse. One example of this may be calling in sick for the addict whenever they miss work because they are drunk or high. Covering for them may feel like helping them not to lose their job. But long term, it only reinforces the addictive behavior, and leads away from the possibility of recovery.
Enabling behavior can be subtle, or it can be so strong and active that it affects the overall mental health of the family group. Each family member plays a role within the family. Enabling is only one role that is played in a family with addiction. Not everyone is an enabler. Conflict often occurs between family members because of the enabling behavior shown towards the addict. Many people don’t recognize that they are an enabler and it can be painful to make this realization.
Because drug and alcohol abuse is a family disease, the entire family needs help. Effective rehab programs have both the addict and the family as a central focus of treatment. Each person in the family is affected differently by drug or alcohol addiction. How each person is affected can be very different, but frequently past behaviors and various dysfunctional family roles in a home with addiction need to be broken, and replaced with healthy behaviors.
Unknowingly, family members may actually be supporting the addictive behavior, and prevent them from achieving recovery from drugs or alcohol. Even if the addict relapses at some point after rehab, family programming helps family members avoid returning to past ways of speaking and responding that support the addict. The family has a choice to carry on in a healthy manner, even if the addict chooses not to. Family treatment is crucial for this reason. Addiction Treatment programs provide help for families in many ways. Some of the most effective family care plans include:
- Face-to-face sessions with professional addiction and family counselors (may be done both with and without the addicted family member present, as appropriate)
- Telephonic conversations with family members who don’t live near the treatment center, but who need help
- Educational family programs to provide education about addiction, and to answer any questions and concerns, and to clear up areas of confusion
- Group sessions for children and spouses (and other family members) to allow sharing of experiences with the disease of addiction
- Other specialized programs to empower families and provide both professional support
- Education on addiction, so that families understand what the addict is experiencing, and why it isn’t easy to recover.
In general terms means an established custom or an automatic pattern of behavior under certain circumstances.A “drug habit” is a common everyday term for addiction or physical dependence. This term is not a true picture of what addiction is, since habit implies that the behavior can be changed with mere willpower. A habit of drug and alcohol abuse, or other behavior, is not that simple.
Help for families
Because drug and alcohol abuse is a family disease, the entire family needs help. Effective rehab programs have both the addict and the family as a central focus of treatment. Each person in the family is affected differently by drug or alcohol addiction. Families may need help creating an intervention that forces a loved one see that their addiction is out of control, and to help them make the decision to enter rehab. If a loved one relapses, family members may also need further help to continue their own positive physical and mental patterns of health.
An opiate drug made from morphine and vinegar or other acids.Heroin is one of the most addictive of all recreational drugs. Heroin in powder form can range in color from white to brown. It can be snorted (sniffed into the nostrils) or mixed with a solution and injected.
Heroin affects the central nervous system of the body. Users initially feel an intense “rush” or sensation of euphoria. After this initial rush, users go in and out of being fully-conscious and their emotions feel dulled. These effects last for 3-4 hours. Heroin depresses the respiratory system, and overdoses from not getting enough oxygen are one of the most common causes of death among heroin addicts. Street names include “smack” and “Big H”.
Means to be free from the control or influence of someone or something.In drug rehabilitation and recovery it means not only to be free from the actual use of drugs or alcohol, but also developing the life-skills and tools needed to live a positive and healthy life.
One of the phases of a comprehensive drug and alcohol addiction treatment program.In this phase a person is no longer in an inpatient facility, but has transitioned into a sober living facility where they practice healthy living skills and share the daily work and chores with other residents. Independent living may have residential staff 24-hours a day, or may be peer-run. Independent living allows people in drug rehab practice the positive life skills that they are learning.
Individualized treatment planning
The most effective treatment planning method for those going through drug andalcohol rehabilitation.By taking into account the individual and their specific and unique needs, a specialized program (individualized treatment plan) is developed to meet the needs in a way that promotes recovery most effectively. Family members and their needs are included as a part of individual treatment planning.
A phase of drug and alcohol rehabilitation that offers support and structure for men and women seeking treatment for drug and alcohol addiction or dual diagnosis disorder while they live on-site at the rehab center.Participants receiving services at this level of care live in residential facilities for the course of the program. Individual care plans for addiction or dual diagnosis disorders may encompass multiple interventions:
- Individual evaluation and counseling
- Group therapy
- Goal-oriented planning
- Educational lectures for both patient and family
- Relapse prevention groups
- Medication management
- Other specific components identified as a special need for an individual client
Families are strongly encouraged to be involved in the treatment plan, with participation in weekly family programs. The inpatient treatment program allows the identification of problems, strengths, and weakness on an ongoing basis, with intervention and support available both during and after active treatment hours.
Intensive outpatient treatment (IOP)
Intensive outpatient treatment (IOP) is an option during drug and alcohol rehabilitation when a client has safe home living conditions and a daily structure that is supportive for recovery.This level of care is offered during convenient hours, and encourages clients with addictions to continue functioning in their communities, while participating in a more intensive form of drug treatment than traditional outpatient settings can offer. This combination of continued productive and independent lifestyle, meshed with frequent and intensive treatment interventions, has been proven to be a successful outpatient treatment modality.
Intensive outpatient treatment programs provide services in a manner that allows the client to continue to work or pursue their academic classes. Intensive Outpatient Programs are most effective for those clients who have already shown improvement in their drug and alcohol treatment goals, and are willing to commit to ongoing treatment.
The active state of being mutually and physically responsible to and for those who share a common set of principles.This is another way of saying working together for the common good of family, community and society. Interdependence means that we keep our individual independence, but understand that we work together in a connected and beneficial way. Interdependence is an important concept to learn for those going through drug and alcohol rehabilitation. Often those with drug and alcohol problems have lost the important skill of working with others
Ketamine is a fast-acting dissociative anesthetic. It is primarily used by veterinarians to anesthetize animals.It’s anesthetic and amnesic effects have made it a popular drug for date rape because it is easily slipped into a drink without being detected. Ketamine produces a high similar to PCP, which makes it a popular drug at raves and clubs. It is available in both liquid and powder forms and is used in a variety of ways, including injecting it, drinking it in a beverage, smoking it by combining it with tobacco or marijuana, or snorting it. Some users combine the powder with ecstasy and make it into tablets.
A member of the family of drugs called benzodiazepines (tranquilizers).The generic name is clonazepam. Has many uses in medicine, but in drug and alcohol rehabilitation is frequently used to help control panic disorders.
A drug made of the opiate hydrocodone, combined with acetaminophen (Tylenol).In medicine is used for moderate pain relief, but users can become dependent and addicted to the opiate portion of this medicine. Another trade name is Vicodin. Is frequently misused as a recreational drug for its side effects of euphoria (a sense of well-being or a high) and sedation.
In drug rehabilitation, maintenance treatment is when people are given an oral dose of synthetic opiates, such as methadone or Suboxone, in order to block the euphoric effects of the addicting drug and help control cravings and other withdrawal symptoms.By being on a maintenance therapy, the patient more able to begin rehabilitation treatment without the negative distraction of cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Ultimately the person will be fully weaned from the maintenance drug.
Prior to beginning detoxification (detox) drug addicts and alcoholics have an exam to evaluate any specific medical problems that need to be addressed and treated before detox and rehab can be safely started.The medical evaluation includes getting a medical history, blood work, EKG and x-rays.
Mental health treatment
Mental health treatment is professional intervention for emotional and psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and many other conditions.Drug and alcohol addictions can occur at the same time as emotional and psychological problems. This is called a dual diagnosis. Mental health treatment is an important part of rehabilitation and long term recovery for those with a dual diagnosis. Mental health treatment may include medication and therapy.
A synthetic (made in a laboratory from chemicals) opiate in the same family as morphine.Methadone is an effective medication to control severe pain, but does not cause the euphoria and “high” associated with morphine and other drugs that cause them to be used. For this reason, methadone is used during medically-supervised detox to help manage the withdrawal symptoms. Is also called Dolophine and Methadose.
A stimulant drug that affects the part of the brain that deals with reward, motivation, pleasure and motor function.It is a drug frequently abused for the physical sensations that it causes (a sense of euphoria, also called a rush or high). Methamphetamines are highly addictive. Methamphetamine is a crystalline powder that is dissolved in water or alcohol and then snorted, injected, smoked or taken by mouth.
Chronic methamphetamine users have changes in the brain that affect memory and emotion. Short term, other physical effects or methamphetamines are rapid or irregular heartbeat, elevated blood pressure and temperature and inability to sleep and no appetite. Long term “meth” users have extreme weight loss, dental problems (“meth mouth”), mood disturbances and violent behavior. Street names include speed, meth, chalk, ice, crystal, glass
Miosis is when the pupils of the eyes are very small or constricted.This is a normal reaction of the eye to bright light, but is also a side-effect of some drugs, particularly opiates like morphine. Is often described as pin-point pupils. The opposite of miosis is mydriasis. Mydriasis is when the pupil is excessively dilated. This can be caused by hallucinogenic drugs like LSD and mescaline.
An opiate pain medication derived as a natural substance in the opium poppy.Side-effects of morphine are a sense of euphoria or “high”. Morphine has a high potential for addiction, tolerance to the drug (so that higher and higher amounts are need by the user to get the same effect), psychological and physical dependence.
Comes in many forms, but in recent years the “extend release” forms have had been abused by addicts. The extend-release tablets are meant to dissolve in the body in such a way that the drug is slowly released over time so that there is a more even amount of drug in the body at any one time. Users crush the tablets to get the entire dosage of the drug at one time. A side-effect of morphine is respiratory depression, and when used inappropriately can stop a person from breathing. Has many trade names, including Astramorph, MS Contin and Roxanol.
When an air bubble or blood clot or other particle enters the blood stream directly and is large enough to block the blood vessel and causes severe damage, such as a stroke or heart attack. A serious problem with IV users who reuse needles over and over can cause the needle to break, and a part of the needle enters the blood stream. The broken needle fragment generally gets stuck in the lung and can cause death.
Drugs that are derived from the opium poppy.Opiates are primarily used to treat pain and suppress some types of coughs. Opiates affect the central nervous system of the body and cause the user to feel a sense of euphoria and sedation. Opiates also cause respiratory depression and constipation. Opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, heroin, Dilaudid, Hycodan and Percodan are made directly from parts of the opium poppy plants. Others, such as Demerol, methadone and Fentanyl are created in the lab synthetically using drugs that are natural opiates.
Opium is a dried portion of the opium poppy.This is used to make drugs called opiates, which are used as painkillers, cough medications and sedatives. The drugs that are made from opium (opiates) either directly or synthetically are extremely habit-forming and addictive. Opium can contain 12% natural morphine. It is used to create heroin.
Either a person or a program where a person does live in a residential treatment center. The outpatient (OP) treatment phase is when a person in rehabilitation for a drug or alcohol addiction (or other kind of addiction) no longer lives in a controlled and structured inpatient setting, but continues to receive treatment and support while living in a sober living situation or has returned to the home environment. By going from a structured inpatient setting and transitioning slowly into outpatient therapy, those in recovery encourage interaction in real-world environments and situations while still benefiting from the support of clinical interventions.
After completing detox and intensive inpatient or day/night rehabilitation programs for drug and alcohol addictions, the next step is to transition into and outpatient treatment program.Outpatient treatment programs are intensive at first, but as the individual needs less and less structured therapy and support, the intensity and duration of outpatient treatment decreases. Outpatient treatment encourages clients to interact in the real-world environment on a daily basis, while still benefiting from the support of clinical interventions. Assessments of the client’s progress are done regularly, and the duration and type of support managed from these assessments.
If appropriate, referrals are made to community support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA), other community based self-help groups, vocational rehabilitation agencies, and other specialized services. No two clients are alike; therefore no two individual outpatient treatment plans will be the same.
An opiate in the same family as morphine, derived from parts of the opium poppy and partially made from chemicals in a laboratory (is semi-synthetic). It is made in part from the naturally occurring opiate thebaine.Used legally for the relief of moderate to severe pain, it is used by addicts for the euphoric (“high”) feelings that the drug causes. As a drug of abuse, oxycodone is misused as much as morphine, and is as highly addictive.
When used for legitimate pain issues, patients can become physically dependent on the drug. Medical use is for chronic pain or for cancer patients with pain. Generally used in the “timed-release” form so that the drug is released slowly and consistently in the body. As a street drug, these timed-release capsules and tablets are chewed, or crushed and then snorted or injected. Used in this way can cause death from overdose. Trade names include OxyContin and Roxicodone.
Oxycontin is one of the trade names for oxycodone, an opiate pain medication that cause dependence and addiction.
An opiate drug in the same family of morphine, and is made from parts of the opium plant.It is a very strong prescription pain reliever, but can lead to physical dependence when used long-term.Frequent drug of abuse due to side-effects of euphoria (a high).Very addictive!The generic name is hydromorphone. Palladone SR is a timed-release version ofhydromorphone.
When a drug is given in a way that bypasses the digestive tract. In drug abuse and addiction some common parenteral ways to use drugs method are by an injection directly into a vein or muscle, or by smoking or snorting.
Partial hospitalization program (PHP)
Patients in partial hospitalization programs (PHP) live in sober living housing, generally near the treatment center. In a PHP drug and alcohol treatment program clients take part in daily treatment programs and are also required to participate in an evening schedule of recovery-oriented programs to support their individualized treatment goals. A PHP is an appropriate choice for people who are resistant to drug and alcohol treatment are relapse-prone or who lack social and emotional support in their lives.
Post Acute Withdrawal Syndrome (PAWS)
Post Acute Withdrawal Syndrome (PAWS) are withdrawal symptoms that are still present even after the initial detoxification.Symptoms may not be as severe, but they can be long-lasting, and make recovery and relapse-avoidance difficult for some people even months after the drug use ends.It is important that if you or a loved one is in recovery that you keep reminding yourself that the severity of PAWS decreases overtime. PAWS Syndrome affects people in how they think, feel and how they remember. The symptoms seem to be worse when some is under stress.
Some common PAWS symptoms are:
- Racing thoughts
- Unable to think flexibly or clearly
- Poor attention and attention span
- Feeling too much or too little
- Being unable to bond with family and friends because of fear, anger, shame and guilt
- Poor short-term memory
- Needing to learn new things over and over to retain information and skills
- Memory gaps about the past, including as far back as childhood
A combination drug made of the opiate oxycodone combined with acetaminophen (Tylenol).Is used medically to treat moderate to severe pain, but chronic users can become physically dependent. Percocet is very addictive.Misused by recreational drug users for its side effects of euphoria (a high or extreme sense of well-being).
A combination drug made of two forms of the opiate oxycodone, combined with aspirin.Is used medically to treat moderate to severe pain, but chronic users can become physically dependent. Percodan is very addictive.Misused by recreational drug users for its side effects of euphoria (a high or extreme sense of well-being).
When the body becomes physically adapted to having drugs and alcohol in the system. Overtime the body needs a certain level of drugs or alcohol in the body all of the time in order to function normally.There are two parts of physical dependence:
- Tolerance is the need for higher and higher amounts (dosages) of drugs or alcohol to achieve the same physical effects.
- Withdrawal the development of physical symptoms (such as nausea, chills, vomiting or anxiety) when a person stops taking a drug too quickly.
Misusing or abusing a more than one substance at a time.The word poly means many.It may refer to abusing more than one kind of drug at the same time, or a combination of drug and alcohol abuse.
Physical drug withdrawal symptoms that occur in people who are addicted to high doses of strong opiates (such as morphine) are started on buprenorphine or naloxone too soon after the last drug use.This happens when the detoxification drugs abruptly push out the strong opiates from the receptor sites in the brain, without having had a chance to bind to the receptor sites.In order to avoid precipitated withdrawal, drugs such as buprenorphine should not be given sooner than four hours after the last opiate drug use. Addicts who are beginning treatment with buprenorphine need to be up-front about their last drug use in order to avoid precipitated withdrawal and its associated symptoms.
When a person continues to report pain or exaggerate the extent of the pain because they have developed a dependence on the drug, even though their pain is adequate controlled or even completely resolved.This is done to avoid reduction in the current dosage of the drug by the physician.It is pseudo because there is no actual physical resistance to the opiate drug in the body and larger dose are not actually needed to control pain.
Psychoactive means something that affects the mind, mood or other process of the mind.Psychoactive drugs work mainly on the central nervous system in ways that alter brain function. This can cause changes in perception, sensation and behavior.Some examples of addictive psychoactive drugs:
When a person feels the deep need for alcohol or drugs either for a positive effect or to avoid the negative effects of not using them. It is a dependency of the mind.People with a psychological dependence experience withdrawal symptoms when use of the drug or alcohol is reduced or stopped. These symptoms can include cravings, irritability, depression and insomnia.Psychological dependence is thought to be related to the reward centers of the brain. In addition to drugs and alcohol, people can have a psychological dependence on many other things, such as gambling, shopping, sex or eating.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder is a condition that some people experience after facing a physical or emotional situation that causes extreme pain or sorrow. If you have PTSD you may continue to feel flashbacks of the event, or feel so helpless, that it begins to have a negative effect on your daily life and relationships.Some people with PTSD turn to drugs or alcohol to help them deal with the pain and sorrow, and this use can lead to dependence and addiction.
Recovery, for those with addiction to alcohol or drugs, is generally defined as a return to a positive state of physical, mental and social health. The process of gaining sobriety is an active one, with recovery the ongoing and dynamic goal for the addicted person. Rehabilitation and the post-rehab treatment must be tailored especially for each person and their individual problems. Recovery is a lifelong process!
Also called TRD or treatment-resistant depression. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or Treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder that do not respond to adequate courses of least two antidepressants.Through addiction treatment it has been discovered that Suboxone (buprenorphine) is can help refractory depression.
Rehabilitation in general terms is the restoration of a person to a healthy and useful place in society.In drug and alcohol addiction it is formal program of treatment phases with the ultimate goal of recovery for clients and their families.
Relapse is an ongoing series of events, and can begin many weeks or months before an addict actually begins drinking or using again. If relapse is caught early, the progression can be stopped. Family awareness and support is important in recognizing early stages and signs of relapse.Stages of relapse:
- Emotional relapse: The addict or alcoholic may not be thinking about using again, but there are many emotions that may be setting them up for relapse.
- Mental relapse: The addict or alcoholic is now struggling, the urge to use again but not wanting to throw away all of the positive changes they have made in their lives.
- Physical relapse: Occurs soon after mental relapse, and is the moment a drink is taken or a drug is used
Residential drug and alcohol treatment is when a person is receiving rehabilitation treatment while living at the treatment center.Residential treatment centers have various levels of independence and structure, depending on a person’s current level of need.
A decrease in the number of breaths per minute that a person takes, or the depth at which person breathes.Opiate drugs cause respiratory depression, and if significant enough this can interfere with the amount of oxygen in the body and result in death of the brain or the body.
The trade name for the prescription drug methylphenidate, which is a stimulant.Ritalin is often prescribed to treat children with ADD (attention deficit disorder) or ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), and when used at proper dosages under medical supervision is not addictive.It has become a drug of abuse, particularly due to the stimulant side effects of appetite suppression, euphoria, wakefulness and increased focus.
The effects have been described as being similar to that of cocaine, and many teenagers and young adults crush and snort Ritalin tablets in order to get a high. If they are on Ritalin for ADD or ADHD, many teenagers hoard the drug for a few days and take it all at one in order to obtain a high. Abuse of Ritalin can cause psychotic episodes, heart problems and severe psychological addiction. Ritalin abuse and addiction is on the rise in the United States.
Rohypnol is the brand name of the drug flunitrazepam, a tranquilizer that is in the same drug family as Valium, but it is more than ten times stronger in its effect.It causes decreased blood pressure, memory impairment, drowsiness, dizziness and confusion. The effects of the drug begin 15-20 minutes and can last more than 12 hours. Rohypnol is not legal to manufacture or prescribe in the United States.Rohypnol tablets are also called “roofies” and it is also called the “date rape” drug.
Individuals who abuse Rohypnol may swallow the caplets whole, crush and then snort the powdered caplets, or dissolve the caplets in liquid and then inject the solution. Rohypnol is addictive when abused. Sexual predators who administer Rohypnol to their victims typically slip the drug into a drink, often at a bar or party. It can cause amnesia in addition to sedation.
Short-acting opiates are those whose half life is eight hours or less. This means that in 8 hours or less, half of the drug gone from the body.Some common short-acting opiates are heroin, crushed OxyContin, Percocet, vicodin and oxycodone.
Sober living facility
A sober living facility is a residential environment that provides a positive place for peer support in the recovery of from alcohol and drug addiction.These are typically transitional in nature, starting with community housing while in rehabilitation, and progressing to shared housing that are run by those who have completed rehab and are in recovery.The goal is to provide increasing independence and interdependence in drug and alcohol free housing.
A kind of psychoactive drug that causes enhanced alertness, wakefulness and activity.Caffeine and nicotine are stimulant drugs.Stimulants are widely used as a drug of abuse and are very addictive.Sometimes called “uppers.”
Common stimulants that are abused are:
- MDMA (Ecstasy)
Structured treatment in drug and alcohol rehabilitation begins with medical evaluation and detoxification, and then progressive through a series of treatment steps.These steps include housing that begins with residential treatment and is decreasingly structured until a person is living fully independently at home.Treatment is also progressive and structured, and based on a person’s unique and individual needs.
Suboxone is a combination drug used in the treatment of drug addiction.It is a combination of the drugs buprenorphine and naloxone.Buprenorphine (Subutex) is an opioid medication, and is similar to other opioids such as morphine, codeine, and heroin. It is important in drug abuse treatment because it produces less of a high and can be slowly tapered off so that withdrawal symptoms are avoided.Naloxone completely blocks the effects of opiate drugs such as morphine, codeine, and heroin.
If Suboxone is injected, naloxone will block the effects of buprenorphine and lead to withdrawal in a person with an opiate addiction. When administered under the tongue as directed, naloxone will not affect the actions of buprenorphine. It is extremely important that Suboxone be used exactly as directed and under continuous medical guidance.
Substance abuse can simply be defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes.Another definition is the use of illegal drugs, prescription drugs or over-the-counter drugs (OTC) for purposes other than those for which they are indicated or in a manner or in quantities other than directed.It can also mean the misuse of household items such as aerosol spray and glue.
A physical and psychological dependence on a substance, such as drugs or alcohol, that later the mood or the mind.In physical dependency a person’s body may go into withdrawal when the drug or alcohol is no available. These symptoms may include nausea, sweating, shakiness or anxiety.Another type of dependency is tolerance. Tolerance to a drug or alcohol is when a person needs larger amounts of drugs or alcohol to achieve the same high. Psychological dependence is when a person feels the deep need for alcohol or drugs either for a positive effect or to avoid the negative effects of not using them. It is a dependence of the mind.
People with a psychological dependence experience withdrawal symptoms when use of the drug or alcohol is reduced or stopped. These symptoms can include cravings, irritability, depression and insomnia. Psychological dependence is thought to be related to the reward centers of the brain.
A rare syndrome (collection of symptoms) of the lungs usually resulting from the intravenous injection of drugs that were meant only to be used in tablet form.Drug users may crush opiate tablets and dilute them with water or alcohol, and then inject them into the veins.Symptoms of talc granulomatosis may not occur for many years, and include:
- Weight loss and lack of appetite
- Chest pain unrelated to the heart
- Shortness of breath
- Low-grade fevers and night sweats
In drug and alcohol treatment therapy is a wide variety of interventions each designed to support the recovery of a person.Some common examples of therapies are:
- Group therapy
- Medication management
- Step-work (such as the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous)
- Coping skills
- Individual counseling
- Psycho-educational groups
- Addictions education
- Drug treatment
- Family therapy
- Other specific group and individual interventions as appropriate to the treatment plan
The need to use higher and higher amounts of alcohol or a drug in order to achieve the same high. Tolerance is one part of physical dependence.
Physical or emotional injury.Can affect a person short-term and for the rest of their lives.Many people think that PTSD develops only after experiences of war or violent accidents and crimes. This is not true. Living through natural disasters such as tornados or hurricanes can cause post traumatic stress disorder. PTSD symptoms may also appear after sexual abuse, the death of a loved one or even while coping with a serious disease such as cancer.Trauma is an underlying cause for some drug and alcohol abuse.
Developing coping skills that help a person move beyond the psychological effects of trauma that have prevented them from functioning normally.Because the intense stress of traumatic events demands coping strategies which usually exceed the individual’s abilities, extreme but protective psychological mechanisms are developed.Drug and alcohol addiction can be ways that people have used to cope with the effects of trauma, and hinder trauma recovery.
A formal program of rehabilitation with the goal of recovery from a physical and/or psychological dependence on drugs or alcohol to a degree that severely interferes with daily life and interactions (an addiction).Treatment may include medical detoxification, inpatient and outpatient therapy, group and individual therapy sessions, and medication, and a long-term plan to help avoid using alcohol in the future.The ultimate goal of treatment is to develop an understanding for the causes of the addiction to alcohol and drugs, and develop life-skill tools to help prevent a relapse into the addictive behavior and maintain positive mental and physical health.Family members should be included in the treatment process.
A licensed addiction treatment facility specializes in the treatment of drug addiction, alcoholism and associated disorders.The services could include residential treatment, partial hospital treatment or outpatient treatment services and include a wide-variety of therapies designed to support long term recovery from drug and alcohol addiction.Comprehensive treatment centers follow the clients closely from first phone call well into the aftercare period, and treatment is highly individualized.
A strong desire or need or craving to do something. In drug and alcohol terms it is the desire to have a drink or use a drug.It can also mean the desire to begin behaving in a way that led to drug use originally: spending time in bars or with others in the drug and alcohol abuse community.Urges can be overwhelming, and without a solid relapse plan can be difficult for a recovery addict or alcoholic to combat.
A member of the family of drugs called benzodiazepines (tranquilizers).The generic name is diazepam.Has many uses in medicine, but in drug and alcohol rehabilitation is frequently used to help control anxiety and acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.Valium may also be abused and is very addictive. After long-term use it should never be stopped suddenly, because withdrawal symptoms may occur.
A combination drug made of the opiate hydrocodone, combined with acetaminophen (Tylenol).In medicine is used for moderate pain relief, but users can become dependent and addicted to the opiate portion of this medicine.Another trade name is Lortab.Is frequently misused as a recreational drug for its side effects of euphoria (a sense of well-being or a high) and sedation.
How the body reacts to a particular drug or substance being suddenly stopped or reduced.Withdrawal symptoms happen when the brain and body cells have become used to having a certain level in the body (such as opiates, alcohol, stimulants or antidepressants), and that level is not longer maintained.In order to experience withdrawal, a person must first have a chemical dependency on the substance. Chemical dependency and associated withdrawal won’t develop in the same way for all drugs or all people.How the drug or substance has been ingested will also have an effect (for example taking pills versus taking IV drugs).Withdrawal can take place as a planned or unplanned event:
- Medical withdrawal (detoxification) is a controlled way to remove the substances from the body in a safer and less distressful way under the supervision of medical personnel. This is often done as an initial step in the drug and alcohol rehabilitation process.
- An addict may be unable to obtain the drugs that he needs or may try to stop using narcotics or alcohol by him. This is called going cold turkey. It can be very painful and distressful, and dangerous if the person has a medical problem in addition to the addiction to drugs or alcohol.
Symptoms a person experiences when the level of drugs or alcohol that they have become dependent on are no longer present in the body.Symptoms depend on the substances involved, but some common symptoms are:
- Tremors (“The Shakes”)
- Muscle aches
- Inability to sleep
- Hot and cold flashes
- Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
- Fever (can be dangerously high)
- Visual hallucinations and confusion (“delirium tremens”)
- Seizures (can be deadly if not treated)
Most withdrawal symptoms last no more than 3-5 days, and are uncomfortable more than life-threatening. Some, however, can be life-threatening without appropriate treatment.
Medical management of withdrawal symptoms (“detox”) is important, not only to manage the discomfort of withdrawal symptoms, but prevent any life-threatening side effects.
A member of the benzodiazepine family of drugs (tranquilizers).Generic name is alprazolam.Has many medical uses, but in drug and alcohol treatment and rehabilitation is used to help treat anxiety, panic disorders and withdrawal symptoms.Abuse and addiction of Xanax is possible. Long-terms users of Xanax should never stop the drug suddenly, or withdrawal symptoms may occur.